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Domestic Angelfish

Domestic Angelfish - Genetic Notations

Below are the genes accepted as being proven through Dr. Norton's work and their letter designations:

1. Dark - D (D)
2. Marble - M (D)
3. Zebra - Z (D)
4. Gold - g (R)
5. Stripeless - S (D)
6. Smokey - Sm (D)
7. Halfblack - h (R)
8. Gold marble - Gm (D)
9. Pearlscale - p (R)
10. Streaked - St (D)
11. Veil - V (D)
12. Albino - a (R)

How the genetic notations are applied:

1. The letter designation of a gene name is the first letter in the notation. Sometimes a letter may already be in use such as "G" for Gold. In this case, Gold Marble is given the notation of "Gm." You'll notice the same with the notation "S" which is for stripeless, therefore the genetic notation for Smokey is "Sm" and Streaked is "St." 

2. The first letter can be either upper-case if the gene is dominant to wild-type or lower-case if the gene is recessive. The second letter is always lowercase.

3. Wild-type is designated by (+).

4. a. The preferred written format to separate alleles is with a (/).ex. for Hybrid Black D/g; for Smokey Sm/+.
b. Fish that are dual-hybrids, tri-hybrids, etc. have loci separated with a (-). Ex. for Black Clown Pearl Scale D/+ - Z/S - p/p; for Gold Marble Pearl Scale Gm/g - p/p, Gm/Gm - p/p, or Gm/+-p/p.


1. There are only two loci that have alleles, all other genes are on their own individual locus. We really have no idea of the exact location of each locus and the order listed below is not to be taken as an absolute numerical location. They are numbered simply to separate the locus.

a: Homogyous Alleles:

  • dark (D), marble (M), new gold (g)  and gold marble (Gm) act as alleles and are located on the same locus.
  • stripeless (S) and zebra (Z) act as alleles and are located on the same locus.


Locus #1: Hong Kong gold (hg), recessive to wild-type 
Locus #2: Smokey (Sm), dominant to wild-type 
Locus #3 - Stripeless (S); Zebra (Z), dominant to wild-type.
Locus #4 - Dark (D), Marble (M), and Gold Marble (Gm), dominant to wild-type; New Gold (g), recessive to wild-type;
Locus #5 - Halfblack (h), recessive to wild-type.
Locus #6 - Pearl (p), recessive to wild-type.
Locus #7 - Streaked (St), dominant modifier of Dark, Smokey, and Stripeless.
Locus #8: Veil (V) dominant to wild-type.

Additional Information:

The gene for new gold, in double dose, blocks expression of smokey and zebra. 

In contrast, one dose of new gold enhances the expression of both dark and marble, resulting in an increased black pigmentation.

Multiple Genotypes for the same Phenotype:

1. There are three genotypes of marble angelfish: 

  • two doses of marble (M/M)
  • one dose of marble (M/+)
  • one dose of marble and one dose of new gold (M/g).

2. There are three genotypes of gold marble angelfish:

  • two doses of gold marble (Gm/Gm)
  • one dose of gold marble (Gm/+)
  • one dose of gold marble and one dose of new gold (Gm/g).


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